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LIPID PANEL

cholesterol, fats, lipoproteins

Total Cholesterol = TG/5 + HDL + LDL

 

GOALS

keep TG and LDL low
keep HDL high

TRIGLYCERIDES (TG) / 5 = Very Low Density Lipoprotein

  • normal <150
  • increased with: excess fats, alcohol, excess carbohydrates
  • decreased with fiber

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)

  • normal 40+, 60+ is extra protection (the "good" lipoprotein)
  • decreased with: trans fats (hydrogenated vegetable oils)
  • increased with:
  • + exercise
  • + avocado, olives, seeds (pumpkin, chia, flax), nuts (especially dry-roasted), fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring, sardines)
  • + unrefined oils (extra virgin is best: not processed with chemicals or heat): olive oil (low smoke point so good uncooked), avocado oil (high smoke point so good for cooking)

Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)

  • normal based on risk factors (the "bad" lipoprotein)

       Heart Disease or Diabetes <100

       Cardiac Risk Factors <130

       No Risk Factors <160

  • increased with saturated/trans fats

      - Limit Processed Meat (including sausage, hot dogs, salami, bologna, bacon, ham, ground meat)

      - Limit Red Meat (mammalian muscle: beef, veal, pork, lamb, horse, goat)

      - Limit Trans Fats (processed foods especially with hydrogenated vegetable oil): pastries (including doughnuts, cakes, cookies, crackers, pies), animal products, margarine, foods fried in high heat and/or reused oil such as potatoes (French fries), potato chips, corn chips, microwave popcorn, shortening, breakfast cereals, candy)

      - Limit butter, cheese, ice cream, sour cream, mayonnaise, certain oils (including coconut oil, palm oil, soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil), chicken fat, egg yolk, condiments including gravy and creamy salad dressing, nut butters with hydrogenated oils, white/milk chocolate

  • decreased with fiber

PROCESSED FATS

WHOLE FOODS

olives are better than olive oil

avocado is better than avocado oil


OILS

extra virgin is better than virgin

virgin is better than non-virgin

olive/avocado oils are better than other oils

and are far better than margarine or butter

FAT OVERDOSE

- excess fats (of al kinds) contribute to atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) and abdominal fat

- the Standard American Diet (SAD) consists of an excess of fats

- be wary of biased industry sponsored research and influence including that of the meat/dairy/egg industry (see nutritionfacts.org and documentary What the Health on Netflix)

- limit added fats

- ensure adequate fiber (wholesome foods)

CARDIAC RISK FACTORS

  • age (45+ men, 55+ women)
  • tobacco abuse
  • hypertension
  • diabetes
  • family history (sibling, father < age 55, mother < age 65)
  • obesity
  • sedentary
  • type A prone to hostility

-> Statin if 10 year risk 10+%

BLOOD TEST TIMING

FASTING

better numbers

NON-FASTING

better outcomes

(preferred)

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